1. Submitted papers as chapters for the edited books for IJOPEC Publications should be unpublished work and not submitted for publication elsewhere.
  2. Papers for the edited books that will be published by IJOPEC Publications should be in MS Office Word format and submitted by email to
  3. As a contributor to IJOPEC Publications, you are expected to ensure that your work is professionally proofread and in proper APA styling prior to final submission. All references should be cited in the text (not in footnotes) by giving the last name of the author, year of publication, followed by reference to pages. Decisions for the publication will be made after the blind review process.
  4. Chapters should be typed single spaced and should not exceed 25 pages. Preferred length is 10-15 pages.
  5. First page of the papers must contain the following information:

(i) the title of the manuscript;

(ii) the name of the author(s);

(iii) institutional affiliation(s) of the author(s);

(iv) an abstract of 80 – 120 words and at least three keywords.

(v) full contact information of all authors (address, phone, e-mail etc…)

Titles and subtitles are expected to be 12 words or fewer (not more than 15 words)

  1. Tables and figures should be numbered consecutively and titled.
  2. Decimals should be separated by a full-stop. Digits should not be separated by commas.
  3. Equations should be numbered consecutively. Equation numbers should appear in parentheses at the right margin. In cases where the derivation of formulas has been abridged, the full derivation must be presented on a separate sheet for referee use (not to be published).
  4. References should be listed on a separate page (NOT on a separate document!).


Author Guideline for APA styling

When writing academically, it is very important to properly cite and reference the materials used in your writing. Proper citation allows your readers to further explore your particular subject matter. Citing also protects you against plagiarism by clearly indicating and differentiating which information comes from other sources and which is your own work and writing. Following a uniform style, such as the APA style guide, helps display your facts, key points, and scientific findings simply and clearly for your readers. Finally, by following a uniform style, the publication process is more efficient for author and publisher alike, allowing for the swift and accurate typesetting of your work.

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author’s last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Gershenkron, 1962).

Note: If you are referring to an idea from another work but not directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article, or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text citation. All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

APA Citation Basics

APA style specifies that major components of the paper (abstract, body, references, etc.) each begin on a new page with the heading centered at the top of the page. The body of the text is typically divided into sections with headings such as Method, Results, and Discussion. For an example of a paper properly formatted per the APA Manual, Sixth Edition, go to Some papers have multiple studies in them so the body could have multiple sections and subsections within it.

Types of Citations

Integrated Citations

A work that is directly referenced within the text by the author’s, or multiple authors’, name is called an integrated citation. When there is an integrated citation for a work with multiple authors, separate the authors with the word “and.” For example:

Alm, Martinez-Vazquez, and Wallace (2009) questioned in their previous work validity of . . .

In an integrated citation that includes “et al.”, you would write the citation as such:

Kirchler et al. (2010) review the tax compliance decisions . . .

When writing an integrated citation for multiple citations, treat each citation as its own integrated citation. You would then separate the citations by a comma and an “and” between the last two citations.

The authors of Şenses (2015), Öniş (2016), Voyvoda and Yeldan (2016), and Taymaz et al. (2015) discuss in their research . . .


Parenthetical Citations

If the work is not directly referenced in the text but still needs to be cited, the citation will be moved to the end of the sentence, and the author’s name will be included along with the publication year, as in the following example: (Hobsbawm, 1991).

The page, or range of pages, where the information is found is identified by a “p.” for a single page or “pp.” for multiple pages. For example:

Although the APA style can seem difficult, it often is very easy to use once it has been practiced (Jones, 1998, pp. 24-32).

When you are citing an electronic, online material, or a source that doesn’t have a page number, use the paragraph number where the information is found. The paragraph number is indicated by “para.” An online source cited like this would look like this:

The APA style has shown a 25% increase in knowledge retention (Jones, 1998, para. 3).


If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by “p.”). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author’s last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses, as in an integrated citation.

According to Jones (1998), “Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time” (p. 199).

If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation, as in a parenthetical citation.

She stated, “Students often had difficulty using APA style” (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

The following section presents a more in-depth discussion of parenthetical and integrated in-text citations.

In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

In-text citations are used to show where you retrieved the information that you are using to make specific arguments in your writing.

Citing an Author or Authors

A basic citation will always use the author-date system. The pages the information is found on can also be included.

(Evans, 1992, pp. 139-140)

A Work by Two Authors

Name both authors in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word “and” between the authors’ names within an integrated citation, and use an ampersand (&) in a parenthetical citation:

(Fine & Waeyenberge, 2013)

A Work by Three to Five Authors

List all the authors in parentheses the first time you cite the source. Include a serial comma before the ampersand.

(Johansson, Heady, Arnold, Brys, & Vartia, 2008)

In later citations, only use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” (meaning “and others”) in parentheses. Note that in “et al.,” the “et” should not be followed by a period.

(Johansson et al., 2008)

Six or More Authors

Use the first author’s name followed by et al. for every citation, including the first.

(Kirchler et al., 2012)

Unknown Author

If there is no author listed for the source, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase, or use the first word or two in a parenthetical citation. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are placed in quotation marks.

A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers (“Using APA,” 2001).

In “Using APA” (2001), students learned to format research papers.

Note: In the rare case “Anonymous” is used for the author, treat it as the author’s name (Anonymous, 2001). In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.

Organization as an Author

If the author is an organization or a government agency, write the organization’s full name in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.

The purpose of the style was to give clarity and simplicity to the writing (American Psychological Association, 2000).

According to the American Psychological Association (2000), . . .

If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.

First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000)

Second citation: (MADD, 2000)

Two or More Works Cited at the Same Time

When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon.

(Chang, 2006; Wade, 1990)

If multiple works by the same author or authors are cited simultaneously, use commas between the publication years, again, listing the sources in the same order that they appear in the reference list.

(Amsden, 1989, 1997)

Authors with the Same Last Name

To prevent confusion, use first initials when last names are the same. The first initial should appear before the last name of the authors.

(G. Johnson, 2001; P. Johnson, 1998)

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year

If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.

Research has shown (Allen, 2013a) that . . .

It was later discovered that these signs were indicative of a great underlying cause (Allen, 2013b).

Personal Communication

For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator’s name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list.

Many students have difficulty with the APA style initially (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

  1. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).


Citing Indirect Sources

If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source (the source that was cited) in your signal phrase. List the secondary source (the source that cited the original source) in your reference list and cite the secondary source in parentheses.

Johnson argued that . . . (as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).

Unknown Date

If no date is given, use the abbreviation “n.d.” (meaning “no date”) in the place of a publication year.

Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring (Sterling, n.d.).

Reference List

Unlike in-text citations, reference citations include additional details beyond author and date. Each reference citation is made up of four parts: Author, Date, Title, and Publication Data. This information will be listed at the end of your article under the subtitle “References.”

The following is a step-by-step guide to building a reference citation using each of these four parts.

Reference List: Author/Authors

The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.).

Single Author

List the author’s last name first, followed by the author’s initials. For example: Fowler, R. B.

Minns, J. (2001). Of miracles and models: The rise and decline of the developmental state in South Korea. Third World Quarterly, 22(6), 1025-1043.

Two Authors

List authors by their last names and initials. Use an ampersand (&) instead of “and,” and include a comma between them. For example: Musgrave, R. A., & Musgrave, P. B.

Musgrave, R. A., & Musgrave, P. B. (1989). Public Finance in Theory and Practice. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Three to Seven Authors

List authors by their last names and initials. Use commas to separate author names, while the last author’s name is preceded again by an ampersand. For example: Kirchler, E., Muehlbacher, S., Gangl, K. Hofmann, E. Kogler, C., Pollai, M., & Alm, J.

Kirchler, E., Muehlbacher, S., Gangl, K. Hofmann, E. Kogler, C., Pollai, M., & Alm, J. (2012). Combining Psychology and Economics in the Analysis of Compliance: From Enforcement to Cooperation. Tulane University Economics Working Paper 1212.

More Than Seven Authors

List the last names and initials of the first six authors, separated by commas. An ellipsis (. . .) will then be used, followed by the final author’s last name and initials. Never use et al. in a reference citation. For example: Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H.

Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., … Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57, 323-335.

Author with a Suffix (Jr., Sr., etc.)

When an author has a suffix as part of their name, such as Jr. (junior) or Sr. (senior), the suffix will appear after the initials of the author. A comma separates the initials from the suffix. For example: Downey, R., Jr.

Downey, R., Jr. (Actor). (2013). Iron man 3. Marvel Studios.

Organization as Author

When a book or article is written by an organization, the organization’s name takes the place of the author’s. Do not abbreviate. For example: American Psychological Association.

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Unknown Author

When the author’s name is unknown, the title of the source will take the place of the author’s name.

Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

NOTE: When your chapter or article includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source’s title instead of an author’s name. Use quotation marks (for articles) and italics (for books) as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: (Merriam-Webster’s, 1993).

Reference List: Date

The date in a reference citation will always appear in parentheses following the authors. Always include a period after the closing parenthesis. The following are examples of dates used in various reference scenarios, which will demonstrate how to organize your sources in the reference list.

Two or More Works by the Same Author

Use the author’s name for all entries and order the entries by year (earliest comes first).

Öniş, Z. (1992). The East Asian Model of Development and the Turkish Case: A Comparative Analysis. METU Studies in Development, 19(4), 495-528.

Öniş, Z. (1995). The limits of neoliberalism: Toward a reformulation of development theory. Journal of Economic Issues, 29, 97-119.

When an author appears both as the only author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first, regardless of publication date.

Evans, P. (1995). Embedded Autonomy: States & Industrial Transformation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Evans, P., Reuschemeyer, D., & Skocpol, T. (1985). The state and economic transformation: toward an analysis of the conditions underlying effective intervention. In P. Evans, D. Reuschemeyer, & T. Skocpol (Eds.), Bringing the State Back In. New York: Cambridge University Press.

References that have the same first author and different second and/or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the second author, or the last name of the third if the first and second authors are the same.

Kirchler, E., Hoelzl, E., & Wahl, I. (2008). Enforced versus Voluntary Tax Compliance: The “Slippery Slope Framework”. Journal of Economic Psychology, 29, 210-225.

Kirchler, E., Kogler, C., & Muehlbacher, S. (2014). Cooperative Tax Compliance: From Deterrence to Deference. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(2), 87-92.

Kirchler, E., Muehlbacher, S., Gangl, K. Hofmann, E. Kogler, C., Pollai, M., & Alm, J. (2012). Combining psychology and economics in the analysis of compliance: From enforcement to cooperation. Tulane University Economics Working Paper 1212.

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year

If there are multiple references by the same author in the same year, organize them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter. Lowercase letters are then added to each publication year, listed alphabetically. The same also applies to groups of writers. If you use more than one source by a group of authors from the same year, attach a letter (starting with a) to the publication year.

Sturridge, D., Owen, M., & Reina, J. M. (2004a). Actor-network theory and post-structuralism. International Journal of Actor-Network Theory and Technological Innovation, 13(1), 54-75.

Sturridge, D., Owen, M., & Reina, J. M. (2004b). Human and non-human actors in ANT. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Works with No Date of Publication

Some sources have no defined date of publication. In this case, write “n.d.” (no date) in place of the date.

O’Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from

Forthcoming Works

Use “in press” in the place of a date to cite a work that has yet to be formally published.

Öniş, Z., & Kutlay, M. (in press). The Dynamics of Emerging Middle Power Influence in Regional and Global Governance: The Paradoxical Case of Turkey. Australian Journal of International Affairs.

Reference List: Title and Publication Data

Reference List: Articles in Periodicals

Basic Form

APA style dictates that after the author and publication date information, described above, the title of the article is written in sentence case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. The periodical title is written in title case (all words upper case except for articles, prepositions, and conjunctions), and is followed by the volume number, issue number and page numbers. The title of the periodical and the volume number will always be italicized.

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages.

Article in a Journal Paginated by Volume

Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended. In this case, only the volume number and the page number are necessary.

Erdoğdu, M. M. (2001). The role of the state in national technological capability building, Review of Asian and Pacific Studies, 22, 17-41.

Article in a Journal Paginated by Issue

Journals paginated by issue begin with page one in every issue; therefore, the issue number is indicated in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined.

Alm, J., Martinez-Vazquez, J., & Wallace, S. (2009). Do tax amnesties work? The revenue effects of tax amnesties during the transition in the Russian federation. Economic Analysis & Policy, 39(2), 235-253.

Article in a Magazine

Articles in works published more frequently, such as weekly magazines, will include the month and date of publication.

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28-31.


Article in a Newspaper

Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style. Use “p.” to denote a single page (e.g., p. B2) and “pp.” to denote multiple pages (e.g., pp. B2, B4 or pp. C1, C3-C4).

Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.

Letter to the Editor

For works other than articles, such as an editorial preface or letter to the editor, label the work in brackets following its title.

Moller, G. (2002, August). Ripples versus rumbles [Letter to the editor]. Scientific American, 287(2), 12.


For reviews, label the work as above, but also include the title and authors of the work being reviewed.

Erdoğdu, M. M. (2001). Review of the book State and Market: The Political Economy of Turkey in Comparative Perspective, by Z. Öniş, Turkish Studies, 2(2), 152-154.

Reference List: Books

Basic Form

In APA style, after the author names and the year of publication, the title of the book is written in sentence case and italicized (note that this is different from a journal reference). After the title, list the location of the publisher, followed by a colon and then the name of the book’s publisher.

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Keyder, Ç. (1987). State and class in Turkey: A study in capitalist development. London: Verso.

Note: For “Location,” if the publisher is based in the United States, you should always list the city and the state using its two letter postal abbreviation without periods (New York, NY). For publishers based outside of the United States, list the city followed by the country (Pretoria, South Africa).

Book Written by One or More Authors

For a book by one or more authors, cite the authors, the book’s title, and the publisher’s information, as described above.

Baer, K., & Le Borgne, E. L. (2008). Tax amnesties: Theory, trends, and some alternatives. Washington D.C: International Monetary Fund.


Edited Book, No Author

List the editor or editors in place of the authors. Indicate their role using (Ed.) for a single editor or (Eds.) for multiple.

Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Edited Book with an Author or Authors

List the author first. Following the title of the book, list the editors with their initials before their last names. Indicate their role as above.

Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals. K. V. Kukil (Ed.). New York, NY: Anchor.

A Translation

List the translators in parentheses following the book’s title. Format their names as you would editors’, and include the original publication date following the publisher’s information.

Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814).

Note: When you cite a republished work, like the one above, in your text, it should appear with both dates: Laplace (1814/1951).

Edition Other Than the First

Include the edition number following the book’s title.

Helfer, M. E., Kempe, R. S., & Krugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book

List the authors, year of publication, and title of the chapter. This is then followed by “In” and the name of the book in italics. List the editors before the title of the book and publisher’s information.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

Batrancea, L., Nichita, A., Batrancea, I., & Kirchler, E. (2016). Tax Compliance Behavior – An Upshot of Trust in and Power of Authorities across Europe and MENA. In M. M. Erdoğdu, & B. Christiansen (Eds.), Handbook of research on public finance perspectives on Europe and the MENA region (pp. 248-267). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.


Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords

An introduction, preface, foreword, or afterword is cited much like a chapter in an edited book, using the applicable title as the chapter of the book.

Funk, R., & Kolln, M. (1998). Introduction. In E.W. Ludlow (Ed.), Understanding English grammar (pp. 1-2). Needham, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Multivolume Work

List the volume number or numbers after the title of the book.

Wiener, P. (Ed.). (1973). Dictionary of the history of ideas (Vols. 1-4). New York, NY: Scribner’s.

Reference List: Other Print Sources

An Entry in an Encyclopedia

Much like a chapter in an edited book, the name of the entry is listed after the author and year information. The volume and page numbers should also be included in the same set of parentheses following the encyclopedia’s title.

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Dissertation Abstract

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation. Title of Publication, volume number, page number.

Yoshida, Y. (2001). Essays in urban transportation. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 7741A.

Dissertation, Published

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of dissertation. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order Number)

Mizuno, E. (2007). Cross-border transfer of climate change mitigation technologies: The case of wind energy from Denmark and Germany to India (Doctoral dissertation). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning. Retrieved May 27, 2016, from:

Dissertation, Unpublished

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Name of Institution, Location.

Considine, M. (1986). Australian insurance politics in the 1970s: Two case studies (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Government Document

Organization Name. (Year). Document title (Publication No.). Location: Publisher.

National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Report from a Private Organization

Organization Name. (Year). Title of report. Location: Publisher.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with eating disorders (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Published Conference Proceedings

When citing a paper that was published in the conference proceedings, cite the paper as you would a chapter in an edited book.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of paper. In Proceedings of Conference Title. Location: Publisher.

Game, A. (2001). Creative ways of being. In J. R. Morss, N. Stephenson, & J. F. H. V. Rappard (Eds.), Theoretical issues in psychology: Proceedings of the International Society for Theoretical Psychology 1999 Conference (pp. 3-12). Sydney: Springer.

Conference Papers

When citing a paper that was presented at a conference but not published in the conference proceedings, cite the source as follows:

Author, A. A. (Year of conference). Title of paper. Paper presented at Conference Title, Location.

Rodrik, D. (2011). The future of economic convergence. Paper presented at the 2011 Jackson Hole Symposium of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, August 25-27.

Lecture Notes

Berliner, A. (1959). Lecture on Reminiscences of Wundt and Leipsig. Personal Collection of A. Berliner, University of Akron, Akron OH.

Reference List: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)

Basic Form

Articles that are published online are very similar to print articles. You will want to include all information the online host makes available to you, including an issue number in parentheses (if available) and the source URL. Introduce the URL with “Retrieved from” and the date the source was accessed.

Referencing web documents

Author, Editor, Year of Publication (i.e. year when web page was created, if known), Title (in italics), [Medium – usually ‘Online’], Edition, Place of Publication, Publisher (if ascertainable or the organization responsible for providing and maintaining the information), available URL (in the format: http://internet address/remote path) and the Date Source was Accessed [in square brackets].

British Lawnmower Museum (n.d.) Lawnmowers of the Rich and Famous [Online] Southport, British Lawnmower Museum. Available: [Accessed 10 March 2004]

Online Scholarly Journal Article: Citing DOIs

Because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in your reference, if it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOIs can provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles, and are unique to their documents. Many, but not all, publishers will provide an article’s DOI on the first page of the document. Some online bibliographies will provide an article’s DOI but may “hide” the code under a button which may read “Article” or may be an abbreviation of a vendor’s name like “CrossRef” or “PubMed.” This button will usually lead to the full article which will include the DOI. A DOI from a print publication or one with a dead link can be found with’s “DOI Resolver” (

Article from an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned

Wooldridge, M.B., & Shapka, J. (2012). Playing with technology: Mother-toddler interaction scores lower during play with electronic toys. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33(5), 211-218.

Article from an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned

Online scholarly journal articles without a DOI require the URL of the journal home page. Since one of the goals of citations is to provide your readers with enough information to find the article, providing the journal home page aids readers in this process.

Cheryan, S., Master, A., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2015). Cultural stereotypes as gatekeepers: Increasing girls’ interest in computer science and engineering by diversifying stereotypes. Frontiers in Psychology, 6. Retrieved from


If you only cite an abstract but the full text of the article is also available, cite the online abstract as other online citations, adding “[Abstract]” after the article or source name.

Paterson, P. (2008). How well do young offenders with Asperger Syndrome cope in custody? Two prison case studies [Abstract]. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(1), 54-58. Retrieved from

Newspaper Article

The newspaper’s home page URL may be included in place of page numbers if the article was accessed online.

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Electronic Books

Electronic books may include books found on personal websites, databases, or even in audio form. Use the following format if the book you are using is only provided in a digital format or is difficult to find in print. If the work is NOT directly available online or must be purchased, use “Available from,” rather than “Retrieved from,” and point readers to where they can find it. For books available in print form and electronic form, include the publish date in parentheses after the author’s name.

Stoker, B. (2000). Dracula [Kindle HDX version]. Retrieved from

Davis, J. (n.d.). Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest. Available from

Chapter/Section of a Web Document or Online Book Chapter

Cite the chapter as in a print book, but include the URL at the end of the reference citation. If the chapter or section was retrieved from a database, list the database at the end of the reference.

Chapter from an electronic book

Jones, N. A., & Gagnon, C. M. (2007). The neurophysiology of empathy. In T. F. D. Farrow & P. W. R. Woodruff (Eds.), Empathy in mental illness. Retrieved from EBL:

Peckinpaugh, J. (2003). Change in the Nineties. In J. S. Bough & G. B. DuBois (Eds.), A century of growth in America. Retrieved from GoldStar database.

Note: Use a chapter or section identifier and provide a URL that links directly to the chapter section, NOT the home page of the Web site.

Online Book Reviews

Cite the information as you normally would for the work you are quoting (The first example below is from a newspaper article; the second is from a scholarly journal). In brackets, write “Review of the book” and give the title of the reviewed work. Provide the web address after the words “Retrieved from,” if the review is freely available to anyone. If the review comes from a subscription service or database, write “Available from” and provide the information where the review can be purchased.

Zacharek, S. (2008, April 27). Natural women [Review of the book Girls like us]. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Castle, G. (2007). New millennial Joyce [Review of the books Twenty-first Joyce, Joyce’s critics: Transitions in reading and culture, and Joyce’s messianism: Dante, negative existence, and the messianic self]. Modern Fiction Studies, 50(1), 163-173. Available from Project MUSE Web site:

Nonperiodical Web Document, Web Page, or Report

When referencing a nonperiodical web document, web page, or report, give as much publication information as possible.

Author, A. (Date of publication). Title of webpage [Format description]. Retrieved Date, from URL

Dunbar, J. & Donald, D. (2009, May 6). The roots of the financial crisis: Who is to blame? Retrieved May 3, 2010, from

Note: When an Internet document is more than one web page, provide a URL that links to the home page or entry page for the document.

Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

Often encyclopedias and dictionaries do not provide bylines (authors’ names). When no byline is present, move the entry name to the front of the citation. Provide publication dates if present or specify (n.d.) if no date is present in the entry.

Feminism. (n.d.). In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved from

Online Bibliographies and Annotated Bibliographies

Jürgens, R. (2005). HIV/AIDS and HCV in Prisons: A Select Annotated Bibliography. Retrieved from

Data Sets

Point readers to raw data by providing a Web address (use “Retrieved from”) or a general place that houses data sets on the site (use “Available from”).

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008). Indiana income limits [Data file]. Retrieved from

Graphic Data (e.g., Interactive Maps and Other Graphic Representations of Data)

The name of the researching organization should take the place of the author, which is then followed by the date. In brackets, provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Finally, provide the project name and retrieval information.

Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. (2007). [Graph illustration the SORCE Spectral Plot May 8, 2008]. Solar Spectral Data Access from the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS Instruments. Retrieved from spectra.ion

Qualitative Data and Online Interviews

If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text (but not in the reference list) and provide the month, day, and year in the text. If an audio file or transcript is available online, use the following model, specifying the medium in brackets.

Butler, C. (Interviewer), & Stevenson, R. (Interviewee). (1999). Oral History 2 [Interview transcript]. Retrieved from Johnson Space Center Oral Histories Project Web site:

Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides

When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g., PowerPoint slides, Word document).

Hallam, A. (2005). Duality in consumer theory [PDF document]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site:

Roberts, K. F. (1998). Federal regulations of chemicals in the environment [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from

Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting

For citations of online forums or discussion boards, Include the title of the message or post, and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board. Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.g., blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author’s name is not available, provide the screen name. Place identifiers like post or message numbers, if available, in brackets. If available, provide the URL where the message is archived (e.g., “Message posted to . . ., archived at . . .”).

Frook, B. D. (1999, July 23). New inventions in the cyberworld of toylandia [Msg 25]. Message posted to

Blog (Weblog) and Video Blog Post

When referencing posts from online weblogs (Blogs) or video blogs (Vlogs), include the title of the message or post and the URL. Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.g., blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author’s name is not available, provide the screen name.

J Dean. (2008, May 7). When the self emerges: Is that me in the mirror? [Web log comment]. Retrieved from (2004, September 26).

Psychology Video Blog #3 [Video file]. Retrieved from


Please note that the APA Style Guide to Electronic References warns writers that wikis (like Wikipedia, for example) are collaborative projects which cannot guarantee the verifiability or expertise of their entries. These are not preferred references but can be a good place to start your research.

OLPC Peru/Arahuay. (n.d.). Retrieved from the OLPC Wiki: http://wiki.laptop. org/go/OLPC_Peru/Arahuay

Audio and Video Podcast

For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Possible identifiers (following the author’s name) may include Producer, Director, etc.

Bell, T., & Phillips, T. (2008, May 6). A solar flare. Science @ NASA Podcast. Podcast retrieved from

Scott, D. (Producer). (2007, January 5). The community college classroom [Episode 7]. Adventures in Education. Podcast retrieved from

Missing some elements? Use this chart:—apa-style-reference-table.pdf

Further Assistance

Should you need any more assistance, the internet is filled with great websites that can show you how to properly cite. Examples of these would be:

The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL), at

KnightCite, by Calvin College, at

Citation Machine, at

APA Style Blog, at

APA Style FAQ, at

The OWL is a great resource for the guidelines of the APA format, and KnightCite and Citation Machine are reference generators that can be used to create examples of proper APA references. The last two websites are produced by the American Psychological Association to assist authors in understanding APA style.